Philosophy, the attempt of some guys in Greece to explain the world and everything that happens by some set of rules and patterns, trying to simply, thereby complicating everything, our understanding of life. Like everything these days, philosophical concepts get minimalistic, thus simpler to explain.
A philosophy stating that for everything that happens there are conditions such that, given them, nothing else could happen.
A religious philosophy which holds that reason and observation of the natural world, without the need for organized religion, can determine that the universe is the product of an intelligent creator(s).
The concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration.
Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between the benevolent and the malignant.
The idea that natural systems and their properties, should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts.
A complex system is nothing more than the sum of its parts, and can be understood by defining each of them separately.
The belief that our reality, or some aspect of it, is ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc.
The established belief or doctrine held by a religion, or a particular group or organization.
An approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns, attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
A philosophy of science based on the view that in the social as well as natural sciences, data derived from sensory experience, and logical and mathematical treatments of such data, are together the exclusive source of all authentic knowledge.
An ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall “happiness”. It is thus a form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome, and that one can only weigh the morality of an action after knowing all its consequences.
Any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.
The philosophical and cultural movement that holds that the starting point of philosophical thinking must be the individual and the experiences of the individual.
A form of social organization characterized by submission to authority. It is usually opposed to individualism andlibertarianism.